概述

目前使用的平台在使用的过程中发现性能比较低,所以需要想办法进行性能调优。

使用的工具

Siege是一个http负载测试和基准测试工具。 它旨在让网络开发者在胁迫下测量他们的代码,看看它将如何站起来加载到互联网上。 Siege支持基本认证,cookies,HTTP,HTTPS和FTP协议。 它允许用户使用可配置数量的模拟客户端访问服务器。 这些客户将服务器置于“under siege”。

说白了Siege 就是一个多线程的http服务器压力测试工具,官网在这里,最近版本3.1.4。怎么安装可以在官网上查看。这个官网好像已经很长时间没更新了,我在mac下安装的siege已经到了4.0.4版本。Mac下直接使用brew安装就可以了。

brew install siege

siege
SIEGE 4.0.4
Usage: siege [options]
       siege [options] URL
       siege -g URL
Options:
  -V, --version             VERSION, prints the version number.
  -h, --help                HELP, prints this section.
  -C, --config              CONFIGURATION, show the current config.
  -v, --verbose             VERBOSE, prints notification to screen.
  -q, --quiet               QUIET turns verbose off and suppresses output.
  -g, --get                 GET, pull down HTTP headers and display the
                            transaction. Great for application debugging.
  -p, --print               PRINT, like GET only it prints the entire page.
  -c, --concurrent=NUM      CONCURRENT users, default is 10
  -r, --reps=NUM            REPS, number of times to run the test.
  -t, --time=NUMm           TIMED testing where "m" is modifier S, M, or H
                            ex: --time=1H, one hour test.
  -d, --delay=NUM           Time DELAY, random delay before each requst
  -b, --benchmark           BENCHMARK: no delays between requests.
  -i, --internet            INTERNET user simulation, hits URLs randomly.
  -f, --file=FILE           FILE, select a specific URLS FILE.
  -R, --rc=FILE             RC, specify an siegerc file
  -l, --log[=FILE]          LOG to FILE. If FILE is not specified, the
                            default is used: PREFIX/var/siege.log
  -m, --mark="text"         MARK, mark the log file with a string.
                            between .001 and NUM. (NOT COUNTED IN STATS)
  -H, --header="text"       Add a header to request (can be many)
  -A, --user-agent="text"   Sets User-Agent in request
  -T, --content-type="text" Sets Content-Type in request
      --no-parser           NO PARSER, turn off the HTML page parser
      --no-follow           NO FOLLOW, do not follow HTTP redirects

Copyright (C) 2017 by Jeffrey Fulmer, et al.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.
There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

直接给出几个常用命令,具体命令行每个参数的意义可以看参考1

# get 请求
siege -c 1000 -r 100 -b url
# post 请求
siege -c 1000 -r 100 -b url POST {\"accountId\":\"123\",\"platform\":\"ios\"}"

测试

测试代码

看一下文件树结构,tree

➜  flask tree
.
├── hello1.py
├── hello1.pyc
├── hello2.py
├── hello2.pyc
├── hello3.py
└── templates
    └── hello.html

下面是一段没有使用模板,只返回字符串的Flask代码。

# file hello1.py
from flask import Flask

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/')
def hello_world():
    return 'Hello, World!'

app.run(debug=False, threaded=True, host="127.0.0.1", port=5000)

下面是一段使用模板文件的Flask代码。

# file hello2.py
from flask import Flask,render_template

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/hello/')
@app.route('/hello/<name>')
def hello(name=None):
    return render_template('hello.html', name=name)

app.run(debug=False, threaded=True, host="127.0.0.1", port=5000)

hello.html文件

<!doctype html>
<title>Hello from Flask</title>
{% if name %}
  <h1>Hello {{ name }}!</h1>
{% else %}
  <h1>Hello, World!</h1>
{% endif %}

flask 直接运行

首先看hello1.py的测试结果

# 100 并发
siege -c 100 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:5000

Transactions:               1000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:               1.17 secs
Data transferred:           0.01 MB
Response time:              0.11 secs
Transaction rate:         854.70 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:               92.12
Successful transactions:        1000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.14
Shortest transaction:           0.01

# 200并发
# siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:5000

Transactions:               1789 hits
Availability:              89.45 %
Elapsed time:               2.26 secs
Data transferred:           0.02 MB
Response time:              0.17 secs
Transaction rate:         791.59 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:              134.37
Successful transactions:        1789
Failed transactions:             211
Longest transaction:            2.09
Shortest transaction:           0.00

# 1000 并发
siege -c 1000 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:5000

Transactions:              10000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:              16.29 secs
Data transferred:           0.12 MB
Response time:              0.00 secs
Transaction rate:         613.87 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:                2.13
Successful transactions:       10000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.08
Shortest transaction:           0.00

不知道为什么200的时候可用率会有一个下降,但是从大趋势可以看出来,访问速率是一直再降的,1000并发的时候已经到613/s了。

在看看第二段代码


# 100 并发 siege -c 100 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:5000/hello/libai Transactions: 1000 hits Availability: 100.00 % Elapsed time: 1.26 secs Data transferred: 0.07 MB Response time: 0.12 secs Transaction rate: 793.65 trans/sec Throughput: 0.06 MB/sec Concurrency: 93.97 Successful transactions: 1000 Failed transactions: 0 Longest transaction: 0.14 Shortest transaction: 0.04 # 200并发 siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:5000/hello/libai Transactions: 1837 hits Availability: 91.85 % Elapsed time: 2.52 secs Data transferred: 0.13 MB Response time: 0.18 secs Transaction rate: 728.97 trans/sec Throughput: 0.05 MB/sec Concurrency: 134.77 Successful transactions: 1837 Failed transactions: 163 Longest transaction: 2.18 Shortest transaction: 0.00 # 1000 并发 siege -c 1000 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:5000/hello/libai Transactions: 10000 hits Availability: 100.00 % Elapsed time: 17.22 secs Data transferred: 0.70 MB Response time: 0.01 secs Transaction rate: 580.72 trans/sec Throughput: 0.04 MB/sec Concurrency: 7.51 Successful transactions: 10000 Failed transactions: 0 Longest transaction: 0.09 Shortest transaction: 0.00

其他方式

参考Flask官方文档推荐的部署方式进行测试。

虽然轻便且易于使用,但是 Flask 的内建服务器不适用于生产 ,它也不能很好 的扩展。本文主要说明在生产环境下正确使用 Flask 的一些方法。
如果想要把 Flask 应用部署到这里没有列出的 WSGI 服务器,请查询其文档中关于 如何使用 WSGI 的部分,只要记住: Flask 应用对象实质上是一个 WSGI 应用。

下面从官方的方式中挑选几种进行性能测试。

Gunicorn

Gunicorn ‘Green Unicorn’ 是一个 UNIX 下的 WSGI HTTP 服务器,它是一个 移植自 Ruby 的 Unicorn 项目的 pre-fork worker 模型。它既支持 eventlet , 也支持 greenlet 。在 Gunicorn 上运行 Flask 应用非常简单:

gunicorn myproject:app

当然,为了使用gunicorn,我们首先得pip install gunicorn来进行gunicorn的安装。要使用gunicorn启动hello1.py,需要将里面的代码

app.run(debug=False, threaded=True, host="127.0.0.1", port=5000)

删掉。然后执行命令

# 其中 -w 为开启n个进程 -b 为绑定ip和端口
gunicorn hello1:app -w 4 -b 127.0.0.1:4000

gunicorn 默认使用同步阻塞的网络模型(-k sync),对于大并发的访问可能表现不够好, 它还支持其它更好的模式,比如:gevent或meinheld。所以,我们可以将阻塞模型替换为gevent。

# 其中 -w 为开启n个进程 -b 为绑定ip和端口 -k 为替换阻塞模型为gevent
gunicorn hello1:app -w 4 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent

下面我分别测试1000并发10次访问的四种情况,1个进程、4个进程下gevnent和非gevent模型,看看结果。

在测试前,一定要设置ulimit的值大一些,否者会报Too many open files错误,我设置到了65535
ulimit 65535

gunicorn hello1:app -w 1 -b 127.0.0.1:4000
siege -c 1000 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:4000
Transactions:              10000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:              15.21 secs
Data transferred:           0.12 MB
Response time:              0.00 secs
Transaction rate:         657.46 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:                0.85
Successful transactions:       10000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.01
Shortest transaction:           0.00

可以看到,单进程比flask直接启动稍稍好一点。

gunicorn hello1:app -w 4 -b 127.0.0.1:4000
siege -c 1000 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:4000

Transactions:              10000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:              15.19 secs
Data transferred:           0.12 MB
Response time:              0.00 secs
Transaction rate:         658.33 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:                0.75
Successful transactions:       10000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.01
Shortest transaction:           0.00

# 使用gevent,记得 pip install gevent
gunicorn hello1:app -w 1 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent
Transactions:              10000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:              15.20 secs
Data transferred:           0.12 MB
Response time:              0.00 secs
Transaction rate:         657.89 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:                1.33
Successful transactions:       10000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.02
Shortest transaction:           0.00

gunicorn hello1:app -w 4 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent

Transactions:              10000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:              15.51 secs
Data transferred:           0.12 MB
Response time:              0.00 secs
Transaction rate:         644.75 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.01 MB/sec
Concurrency:                1.06
Successful transactions:       10000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.28
Shortest transaction:           0.00

可以看到,在并发数为1000的时候,使用gunicorn和genent并不明显,但是当我们修改并发数为100或200是进行测试

gunicorn hello1:app -w 1 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent
siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:4000
Transactions:               1991 hits
Availability:              99.55 %
Elapsed time:               1.62 secs
Data transferred:           0.02 MB
Response time:              0.14 secs
Transaction rate:        1229.01 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.02 MB/sec
Concurrency:              167.71
Successful transactions:        1991
Failed transactions:               9
Longest transaction:            0.34
Shortest transaction:           0.00

gunicorn hello1:app -w 4 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent
siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:4000
Transactions:               2000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:               0.71 secs
Data transferred:           0.02 MB
Response time:              0.04 secs
Transaction rate:        2816.90 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.03 MB/sec
Concurrency:              122.51
Successful transactions:        2000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.17
Shortest transaction:           0.00

可以看到在4进程,使用gevent的时候已经达到了2816。

再测试一下200并发下hello2.py的效率。

gunicorn hello2:app -w 1 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent
siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:4000/hello/2
Transactions:               1998 hits
Availability:              99.90 %
Elapsed time:               1.72 secs
Data transferred:           0.13 MB
Response time:              0.14 secs
Transaction rate:        1161.63 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.08 MB/sec
Concurrency:              168.12
Successful transactions:        1998
Failed transactions:               2
Longest transaction:            0.35
Shortest transaction:           0.00

gunicorn hello2:app -w 4 -b 127.0.0.1:4000  -k gevent
siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://127.0.0.1:4000/hello/2
Transactions:               2000 hits
Availability:             100.00 %
Elapsed time:               0.71 secs
Data transferred:           0.13 MB
Response time:              0.05 secs
Transaction rate:        2816.90 trans/sec
Throughput:             0.19 MB/sec
Concurrency:              128.59
Successful transactions:        2000
Failed transactions:               0
Longest transaction:            0.14
Shortest transaction:           0.0

可以看到和hello1.py的效率差不都,也达到了2800+,性能基本上算是提升了4倍。

uWSGI

官网链接uWSGI,安装请点开链接查看。Mac下直接使用brew install uWSGI就可以安装,安装好后,在网站目录下运行

uWSGI --http 127.0.0.1:4000 --module hello1:app

时间不够了,先写到这里

usWSGI和ngnix

uswgi 安装,使用pip install uswgi就可以了。

写配置文件uswgi.ini,这个文件uswgi的配置文件。

[uwsgi]
# 是否启用主进程
master = true
# 虚拟python环境的目录,即virtualenv生成虚拟环境的目录
home = venv
# wsgi启动文件
wsgi-file = manage.py
# wsgi启动文件中new出的app对象
callable = app
# 绑定端口
socket = 0.0.0.0:5000
# 开启几个进程
processes = 4
# 每个进程几个线程
threads = 2
# 允许的缓冲大小
buffer-size = 32768
# 接受的协议,这里要注意!!!!!!直接使用uwsgi启动时必须有这项,没有的话会造成服务可以启动,但是浏览器不能访问;在只是用nginx进行代理访问时,这项必须删除,否则nginx不能正常代理到uwsgi服务。
protocol=http

其中uwsgi的启动文件为manage.py,其中hello1为上面的hello1.py,注释掉其中的app.run(debug=False, threaded=True, host="127.0.0.1", port=5000)

from flask import Flask
from hello1 import app

manager = Manager(app)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    manager.run()

然后使用命令uswgi uswgi.ini启动程序,访问本地127.0.0.1:5000就可以看到helloworld了。然后就需要和nginx一起使用了,安装好nginx后,找到nginx的配置文件,如果使用的是apt或者yum安装nginx,则nginx的配置文件在/etc/nginx/nginx.conf中,为了不影响全局效果,这里修改/etc/nginx/sites-available/default文件,这个文件在/etc/nginx/nginx.conf中包含了,所以配置也是生效的。配置文件内容。

# nginx ip 访问次数限制,具体内容请查看参考6,7
limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=allips:100m rate=50r/s;  

server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    listen [::]:80 default_server;
    # nginx ip 访问次数限制,具体内容请查看参考6,7
    limit_req   zone=allips  burst=20  nodelay; 
    root /var/www/html;
    # Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP
    index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;
    server_name _;
    # 静态文件代理,nginx的静态文件访问速度比其他容器快很多。
    location /themes/  {
        alias       /home/dc/CTFd_M/CTFd/themes/;
    }
    # uwsgi配置
    location / {
        include uwsgi_params;
        uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:5000; 
        # python virtualenv 路径
        uwsgi_param UWSGI_PYHOME /home/dc/CTFd_M/venv; 
        # 当前项目路径
        uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /home/dc/CTFd_M; 
        # 启动文件
        uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT manage:app; 
        # 超时
        uwsgi_read_timeout 100;
    }
}

然后启动nginx服务器,访问127.0.0.1就可以正常访问了,由于可能本机配置有问题,不能成功使用这种方式进行系统的访问,后面的对比结果是我新建虚拟机,Ubuntu Server 16.04,2核,2G内存的性能,并且这里访问的网页已经不是前面的hello1.py这种测试程序,而是一个完成的应用平台,可以从Throughput属性看到,已经达到了20+M/s的处理速度。

# 下面的两个测试均是物理机上访问虚机环境,虚机环境为Ubuntu Server 16.04
# 使用uswgi启动
siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://192.168.2.151:5000/index.html
Transactions:              56681 hits
Availability:              99.90 %
Elapsed time:             163.48 secs
Data transferred:        3385.71 MB
Response time:              0.52 secs
Transaction rate:         346.72 trans/sec
Throughput:            20.71 MB/sec
Concurrency:              180.97
Successful transactions:       56681
Failed transactions:              59
Longest transaction:           32.23
Shortest transaction:           0.05

# 使用uswsgi和nginx做静态代理后
siege -c 200 -r 10 -b http://192.168.2.151/index.html

Transactions:              53708 hits
Availability:              99.73 %
Elapsed time:             122.13 secs
Data transferred:        3195.15 MB
Response time:              0.29 secs
Transaction rate:         439.76 trans/sec
Throughput:            26.16 MB/sec
Concurrency:              127.83
Successful transactions:       53708
Failed transactions:             148
Longest transaction:          103.07
Shortest transaction:           0.00

可以看到,uswsgi和nginx一起使用,能够提升一些效率,从346次/s提升到了439次/s。

参考

  1. siege压力测试工具安装和介绍
  2. Flask官方文档
  3. 用gunicorn+gevent启动Flask项目
  4. CGI, FastCGI, WSGI, uWSGI, uwsgi简述
  5. Flask+uwsgi+Nginx部署应用
  6. nginx限制ip请求次数 以及并发次数
  7. Nginx限制访问次数和并发数

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